Childhood Disabilities & Disorders
- When to Seek Therapy
- Disabilities & Disorders
- Anxiety Disorders
- Apraxia of Speech, Childhood
- Articulation Disorders
- Asperger's Syndrome
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Birth Injuries
- Central Auditory Processing Disorder
- Cerebral Palsy
- Conduct Disorder
- Down Syndrome
- Elimination disorders (enuresis and encopresis)
- Failure to thrive/feeding disorder
- Fine and Gross Motor Delays
- Fragile X Syndrome
- Gait abnormalities
- Global Developmental Delay
- Hip dysplasia
- Language Delays
- Learning Disabilities
- Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
- Mental Retardation
- Mood Disorders
- Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
- Oral Motor Disorders
- Orthopedic conditions
- Osgood-Schlatter Disease
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder
- Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood
- Reading Disorders
- Selective Mutism
- Sensory Processing Disorder
- Separation anxiety disorder
- Tic disorders
- Torticollis (Wry Neck)
- Additional Resources
Learning disabilities refer to a group of disorders characterized by the failure of an individual to process information. A learning disability might relate to getting information into the brain (Input), making sense of this information (Organization), storing and later retrieving this information (Memory), or getting this information back out (Output). Therefore, these disabilities affect a wide range of functional and academic skills, such as the ability to listen, write, spell, read, speak, do math, organize information, and reason.
Having a learning disability does not mean having a lower IQ. On the contrary, an individual with a learning disability typically has an average, or above average IQ. People with a learning disability have difficulty learning specific types of skills as quickly or through conventional methods.
Studies have found that there is an equal ratio of boys and girls who have learning disabilities.
There are no ‘cures’ for learning disabilities, however, there are a number of treatments and tools that allow children with learning disabilities to succeed academically and in other areas.
Types of learning disabilities
Auditory processing disorder
A child with auditory processing disorders usually has relative ease learning visually but trouble understanding many tasks at the same time.
Language delay refers to the process of understanding what is said to us (receptive language), as well as to the use of words and sentences to communicate what we think, need, and want (expressive language).
A child with mathematic disabilities (also referred to as dyscalculia) can have trouble: organizing numbers and math problems, as well as learning and memorizing mathematical concepts.
Children can have fine or gross motor delays, or both. Fine motor delays relate to the lack of coordination of small muscle movements which typically also require eye coordination. Gross motor delays refers to the lack of coordination of large muscle groups and whole body movement.
Reading disorders are the most common type of learning disability, occuring in 70% to 80% of all students with learning disabilities.
A reading disability can affect any part of the reading process: word decoding, difficulty with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, reading rate, reading comprehension, as well as oral reading with expression.
Children with visual learning disabilities have trouble with visual-spatial perception and math. They make subtle mistakes in shapes, numbers and letters, skipping words, or even entire lines, when reading and also have difficulty with eye-hand coordination. Visual perception can affect fine and gross motor abilities causing a child to become ‘clumsy’.
“Dysgraphia" is often used as a collective term to refer to all disorders of written expression. Writing disorders include difficulties in a range of areas, such as spelling, composition, organization of ideas, and even handwriting.