Childhood Disabilities & Disorders
- When to Seek Therapy
- Disabilities & Disorders
- Anxiety Disorders
- Apraxia of Speech, Childhood
- Articulation Disorders
- Asperger's Syndrome
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Birth Injuries
- Central Auditory Processing Disorder
- Cerebral Palsy
- Conduct Disorder
- Down Syndrome
- Elimination disorders (enuresis and encopresis)
- Failure to thrive/feeding disorder
- Fine and Gross Motor Delays
- Fragile X Syndrome
- Gait abnormalities
- Global Developmental Delay
- Hip dysplasia
- Language Delays
- Learning Disabilities
- Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
- Mental Retardation
- Mood Disorders
- Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
- Oral Motor Disorders
- Orthopedic conditions
- Osgood-Schlatter Disease
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder
- Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood
- Reading Disorders
- Selective Mutism
- Sensory Processing Disorder
- Separation anxiety disorder
- Tic disorders
- Torticollis (Wry Neck)
- Additional Resources
Articulation disorders are speech disorders defined as the inability to correctly produce speech sounds (phonemes). Children with articulation disorders have difficulty producing and using age-appropriate speech sounds. It is possible that a child has speech delays, but not language delays.
Different types of articulation disorders include:
- Distortions: The child slightly changes sounds, which may seem like the addition of noise, or a change in voicing (e.g. says “filsh” for “fish”).
- Omissions: The child deletes certain sounds, such as entire syllables or classes of sounds (e.g. says “fi” for “fish”).
- Additions: The child adds an extra sound to another which is already produced correctly (e.g. says “fisha” for “fish”).
- Substitutions: The child substitutes one sound for another, often with similar articulation (e.g. says “fith” for “fish”).
When learning to speak, all young children mispronounce words. As they grow older and their articulation skills develop, their pronunciation usually becomes clearer. Find out more about specific pronunciation goals by age.
Although most children develop mature articulation skills and are able to pronounce all sounds accurately, some children may exhibit inaccurate or distorted production of one or more sounds. These children may need speech therapy in order to correct these distortions.
Articulation disorders may be caused by a variety of factors, such as hearing loss, oral-motor problems and abnormalities in the structure of the mouth and other speech muscles.
Support and reinforcement of therapy practices, both at home and in the classroom, are essential to the success of articulation disorder treatment.